Radiation Safety Office

INFORMATION SHEETS FOR SELECTED ISOTOPES:

3H
(Hydrogen-3; Tritium)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 12.3 years
Biological 12 days
Effective 12 days


RADIATION EMITTED:
B- Energy of Radiation (KeV): 18.6 (max) 5.7 (mean)
Maximum Range of Beta Particles:Air 5 mm Water 0.006 mm
Radiation Biology Critical Organ: Whole Body
Toxicity: Low
ALI: Ingestion (Water) Inhalation
8 X 104 uCi
8 X 104 uCi

Bioassay: Urinalyses required within 10 working days after working with 100 mCi or more of tritiated water or sodium borohydride.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 2 x 10-5
Survey Technique: Wipes, counted by LSC
Shielding Required: None

Special Considerations: Tritium cannot be monitored directly because of the low beta energy. Special care is needed to control contamination. Regular monitoring by wipe testing is advisable. External contamination does not cause a radiation dose itself but can lead to potentially hazardous internal contamination and can interfere with experimental results.

14C
(Carbon-14)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 5,730 years
Biological 10 days (whole body) 12 days (fat)
Effective 10 days (whole body) 12 days (Fat)


RADIATION EMITTED: B-
Energy of Radiation (KeV): 156 (max) 48 (mean)
Maximum Range of Beta Particles: Air 24 mm Water 0.28 mm
Radiation Biology Critical Organ: Whole Body and Fat
Toxicity: Medium/Low
Monoxide Dioxide Compounds
ALI (Inhalation)
2x106 uCi
2X105 uCi
2X103 uCi
ALI (Ingestion)
2X103 uCi

Bioassay: Not routinely done. Urinalysis and breath analyses are possible.
Health Physicis Monoxide Dioxide Compounds DAC (uCi/ml):
7x10-4
9x10-5
1x10-6
Survey Technique:Thin window GM survey meter; or wipes, counted by LSC.
Shielding Required:1 cm plexiglass (3 mm would be OK, but it has poor mechanical properties.)
Special Considerations: None

32P
(Phosphorus-32)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 14.3 days
Biological 257 days (Whole Body) 1,157 days (Bone)
18 days (liver) 257 days (Brain)
Effective 13.5 days (Whole body) 14.1 days (Bone) 8 days (Liver)
13.5 days (Brain)


RADIATION EMITTED: B- and Bremsstrahlung
Energy of Radiation (KeV): 1,709 (Max) 690 (Mean)
Maximum Range of Beta Particles: Air 7,800 mm (7.26 m)
Water 0.8 cm(8.45 mm)

Radiation Biology Critical Organ: Bone
Toxicity: Medium/Low
ALI: Ingestion (Water) Inhalation
6X102 uCi
9X102 uCi
(Except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 4X102)
Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 4X10-7 (except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 2 X 10-7)
Survey Technique: Beta survey meter.
Shielding Required: 1 cm Plexiglas, followed by lead.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body and ring

Special Considerations: Highest energy radionucoide commonly used in research labs. Also, absorportion of high energy Beta by high density materials gives rise to high intensity Bremsstrahlung which requires lead shielding. Always remember that extremely high radiation exposures, especially to hands, can occur from even short exposures to small quantities.

Because it is a bone seeker, special care must be taken to minimize any chance of introducing this isotope into the body.

33P
(Phosphorus-33)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 25.4 days
Biological 257 days (Whole Body) 1,157 days (Bone) 18 days (liver)
257 days (Brain)
Effective 23.1 days (Whole Body) 24.8 days (Bone) 10.5 days (Liver)
23.1 days (Brain)


RADIATION EMITTED: B-
Energy of Radiation (KeV): 249 (Max) 77 (Mean)
Maximum Range of Beta Particles: Air 59.8 cm Water 0.64 mm

Radiation Biology Critical Organ: Bone
Toxicity: Medium/Low
ALI: Ingestion (Water) Inhalation
6X102 uCi
8X103 uCi
(Except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 3 X 103)

Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 4X10-6 (except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 1 X 10-6)
Survey Technique: Beta survey meter.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body

35S
(Sulfur-35)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 87.4 days
Biological 90 days (whole Body) 623 days (testis)
Effective 44.3 days (Whole Body) 76.4 days (testis)

RADIATION EMITTED: B-
Energy of Radiation (KeV): 167 (max) 49 (mean)
Maximum Range of Beta Particles: Air 30 mm Water 0.28 mm

Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: Whole Body and Testis
Toxicity: Medium/Low
ALI:For Vapor (for other cases, refer to regulatiuons) Ingestion
Inhalation ---
1X104 uCi

Bioassay: Not rountinely done.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 6X10-6 For Vapor (for other cases, refer to regulations)
Survey Technique: Thin window GM survey meter; or wipes, counted by LSC.
Shielding Required: 1 cm Plexiglas (3 mm would be OK but has poor mechanical properties).
Special Considerations: This radionuclide is organ-specific for both whole body and testes, and hence is particularly hazourous for internal contamination in males.

45Ca
(Calcium-45)

Physical Characteristics: (ICRP 38, Shapiro)
Half Life: Decay Mode Beta emission to 45Sc (Stable) Physical 163 days
Major Emissions beta minus, 250 keV max, 77 keV avg, 1/dis
Range in air about 50 cm
Range in water about 0.6 mm
Does to skin about 4 rem/hr for 1 uCi/cm2

Biological Data: Absorportion into bone from intake into the body varies from person to person, with fractions of 0.12 to 0.7 reported for humans, with 0.3 being a representative number. Half-life is apparently complex; retention is apparently better described by a power function. 45Ca is assumed to be uniformly distributed through bone, with biological half-life very long compared to physical half-life.

Representative doses from oral intake of 1 uCi of 45Ca, per ICRP 30, are:
Red Marrow 13 mrem
Bone Surface 19 mrem
ULI Wall 4 mrem
LLI Wall 10 mrem

Common Hazzards - Precautions 45Ca presents no significant dose problem while in any reasonable container. Internal doses from intake of contamination can be significant. 45Ca can be readily detected using a thin-window geiger counter. Thus, routine radiation surveys and contamination surveys can be easily made which reveal contamination; such contamination can then be fairly easily cleaned up.

Water 0.64 mm

Radiation Biology Critical Organ: Bone
Toxicity: Medium/Low
ALI: Ingestion (Water) Inhalation
6X102 uCi
8X103 uCi
(Except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 3 X 103)

Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible.Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 4X10-6 (except for phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides -- where it is 1 X 10-6)
Survey Technique: Beta survey meter.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body

51Cr
(Chromium-51)

Chromium-51 is used at WSU mainly in cell labeling. Its short half-life and moderate gamma energy give it certain advantages for such work.

Physical Characteristics: (ICRP 38 and RHH)
Half Life: Decay Mode electron capture to stable 51V
Half-life 27.7 days
Major Emissions 320 keV gamma (about 9%) about 5 keV x-rays (about 45% total) about 5 keV auger electrons (about 68% total)
Half-valuer thickness about 2 mm Pb about 9 mm Fe, about 27 mm AL
Dose rate constant about 160 mrem/hr at 1 cm per mCi

Biological Data (ICRP 30) About 0.1 of intake becomes uptake. Form is or usually becomes Cr+++. Of uptake, about 0.3 is excreted within 1 day, 0.4 becomes distributed uniformly within the body with about 6 day half-life, 0.25 become uniformly distributed with about 80 day half-life, and about 0.05 goes to bone with about 1,000 day half-life (approximately infinity compared to the 28-day physical half-life).Committed dose equivalents per uCi of intake include about 0.9 mrem to LLI (from ingestion), 2 mrem to lung (from inhalation) and lower doses to other organs.

Comments - PrecautionsThe 320 keV photons from 51CR are more penetrating than emissions from iodines, phosphorus, etc., used at WSU. However, the low intensity results in modest dose rates from typical quantities in use; hence handling problems are not severe.

Normal precautions for working with 51Cr include the usual wearing of lab coat and gloves, wearing personnel badge, wearing TLD finger dosimeter when handling concentrated material

54Mn
(Manganese-54)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 312.7 days
Biological 17 days
Effective 16.1 days

RADIATION EMITTED: Y and E
Energy of Radiation (KeV): y=835 (100%) E=829
Dose Rate at 1 Meter from a 1 mCi Point Source: 0.511 mR/hr

Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: LLI, Liver, Lung
Toxicity: Medium/High
ALI: Inhalation Ingestion
2X103 uCi (except for oxides,
9X102 uCi (except for oxides, hydroxides, halides, and
hydroxides, halides, and nitrates nitrates -- where it is zero)
-- where it is 8X102 uCi)

Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible, as is whole body counting.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 4X10-7 (except for oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates -- where it is 3X10-7)
Survey Technique: Gamma or X-ray survey meter.
Shielding Required: 3.2 cm lead provide 95% attenuation.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body. Ring may also be required.

Special Considerations: Rigid contamination control and laboratory survey procedures are required, especially when using "gamma microspheres." Use of syringe shields is highly recommended. Floor drains shoud be sealed when using gamma microspheres.

57Co
(Cobalt-57)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 270.9 days
Biological 9.5 days
Effective 9.2 days

RADIATION EMITTED: Y and X-rays Energy of Radiation (KeV):
14 (9.5%) 122 (85.5%) 136 (10.8%) 570 (0.01%) 692 (0.16%)
607 (55%) 57fE X-rays
Dose Rate at 1 Meter from a 1 mCi Point Source: 0.151 mR/hr

Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: Lower Large Intestine (LLI)
Toxicity: Medium/Low
ALI: Inhalation Ingestion
Oxides, hydroxides, 4X103 uCi
7X102 uCi halides, nitrates
All other compounds 8X103 uCi
3X103 uCi

Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 3X10-7 (for oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates) 1X10-6 (for all other compounds)
Survey Technique: Gamma or X-ray survey meter.
Shielding Required: 7.5 cm lead provide 95% attenuation.
Film Badge Required: Yes.
Special Considerations:None

63Ni
(Nickel-63)

Nickel-63 has a low energy beta spectrum and reasonably long half-life, making it useful as an alternative for tritium in some applications. Major use is in gas chromatograph sources where the greater stability of electroplated radionickel compared to metaltritides makes it of particular value.

Physical Data: (ICRP 38 and Rad Health Handbook)
Half Life: Decay Mode Beta emission to stable 63Cu
Physical half-life about 96 years
Major Emissions beta minus, 67 keV max, 17 keV avg, 1/dis
Range in air about 5 1/2 cm
Range in water about 60 um

Biological Data (ICRP 30): Intake into the body via ingestion or inhalation results in about 5% uptake, Biological half-life has several components including a 1200 day half-life component. Committed dose equivalents for most body organs are of the order of 3 mrem/µCi intake if via inhalation, and of the order of 1 mrem/µCi intake if via ingestion. DAC is 3X10-7 µCi/ml for vapor, 1X10-6 µCi/ml for oxides, hydroxides and carbides, and 7X10-7 µCi/ml for all other compounds.

Common Hazards - Precautions: 63Ni G-C sources are quasi-sealed sources. They are required to be leak tested at least every six months. However, the sources being nickel electroplated onto a metal surface, can produce contamination from rubbing or scratching the source active surface, from overheating the source, etc. Thus, such sources must be handled with care. Note that 63Ni presents no external dose hazard to humans except to lenses of eyes.
The low energy of the beta spectrum makes use of personnel film dosimeters and TLD dosimeters of no value, hence, they need not be issued to using personnel.
Surface contamination is difficult to find using normal survey equipment, although thin-window G-M detectors will detect 63Ni radiation. LSC techniques result in good sensitivity and accuracy; thus, a routine swipe program is very useful when working with 63Ni in unsealed or unplated conditions.

65Zn
(Zinc-65)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 244.4 days
Biological 933 days
Effective 194 days

RADIATION EMITTED: B+, E, and Y Energy of Radiation (KeV): B+ = 327 (Max) E=1,106 Y=511 (0.4%) 1,155 (49%)

Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: Whole body, Prostate, Liver
Toxicity: Medium
ALI: Inhalation Ingestion
All Compounds 3 X 102 uCi
4 X 102 uCi

Bioassay: Not rountinely done. Urinalysis is possible.
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 1 X 10-7 (for all compounds)
Survey Technique: Gamma or X-ray survey meter.
Shielding Required: 4.06 cm lead provide 95% attenuation.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body. Ring may also be required.

Special Considerations: Rigid contamination control and laboratory survey procedures are required, especially when using "gamma microspheres."
Use of syringe shields is highly recommended.
Floor drains should be sealed when using gamma microspheres.

86Rb
(Rubidium-86)

Rubidium is used as a tracer for potassium in various metabolic studies. It has a short half-life and is easily measured with reasonable counting equipment.

Physical Data: (ICRP 38, Rad Health Handbook)
Half Life: Decay Mode beta emission to stable 86Sr
Physical half-life 18.7 days
Major Emissions beta minus, 1.77 MeV max, 0.71 MeV avg, 0.91/dis
beta minus, 0.68 MeV max, 0.23 MeV avg, 0.23 MeV avg, 0.09/dis
Dose rate constant 0.5 rem/hr per mCi at 1 cm
Beta range in air 1.77 MeV, about 20 ft; 0.68 MeV, about 7 1/2 ft
Beta range in lucite 1.77 MeV, about 0.25 in.; 0.68 MeV, about 0.07 in.
Photon HVL about 1 cm Pb, about 1 in. of iron
Photon TVL about 2.2 cm Pb, about 3 in. of iron

Biological Data (ICRP 10, 30): Rubidium in most or all compounds, is absorbed rapidly and distributed uniformly within the body except for bone, which will take up about three times the concentration of other body materials. Biological half-life averages about 44 days, but after uptake rubidium begins to show in urine and sweat within minutes.

Intake, hence uptake, of 1 uCi of 86Rb results in estimated committed doses of: 26 mrem to bone, 14 mrem to red bone marrow, 11 mrem to whole body and most organs
Annual limit of intake (ALI) is 500 uCi (ingestion) or 800 uCi (inhalation for all compounds.

Comments - Precautions86Rb has approximately the same beta energy as 32P, plus having a gamma midway between 137Cs and 60Co. Thus, precautions in handling similar to those for 32P should be acceptable. However, additional shielding using lead, iron, or such, may be needed, depending on quantites and procedures involved.

125I
(Iodine-125)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 60.1 days
Biological 138 days (Whole Body) 138 days (thyroid)
Effective 41.8 days (whole body) 41.8 days (thyroid)

RADIATION EMITTED: Y and X-rays
Energy of Radiation (KeV):
35 (7% emitted, 93% converted)
27-32 (138%m Te-X-rays)
Dose Rate a 1 meter from a 1 mCi Point Source: 0.275 mR/hr


Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: Thyroid
Toxicity: Medium/High
ALI: Ingestion Inhalation
4 X 101 uCi
6 X 101 uCi
(Thyroid: 1 X 102 uCi)
(Thyroid: 2 X 102 uCi)

Bioassay: (See Next Page)
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 3 X 10-8 (for all compounds)
Survey Technique: Low energy Gamma or X-ray scintillation-type survey meter. Shielding Required: 0.8 mm of lead provides 95% attenuation.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body.

Special Considerations: Violatilization is a most significant problem. Simply opening a vial of sodium iodide can cause significant airborne release. Breathing zone and exhaust effluent monitoring may be required. Solutiopns should not be made acidic or stored frozen. Double gloving strongly recommended. Notify RSO immediately if personnel contamination is suspected. Medical consultation may be needed. All work is normally to be done in approved hood. Depending on activity used, supplemental "mini hoods," glove boxes, and/or in-line exhaust filters may be required.

131I
(Iodine-131)

Physical Characteristics:
Half Life: Physical 8.0 days
Biological 138 days (Whole Body) 138 days (thyroid)
Effective 7.6 days (whole body) 7.6 days (thyroid)

RADIATION EMITTED: B and Y
Energy of Radiation (KeV): B = 806 (max) 180 (mean)
Y = .80 (2.4%) 284 (5.9%) 364 (81.8%) 637 (7.2%) 723 (1.8%)
Dose Rate a 1 meter from a 1 mCi Point Source: 0.283 mR/hr

Radiation Biology
Critical Organ: Thyroid
Toxicity: Medium/High
ALI: Ingestion Inhalation
3 X 101 uCi
5 X 101 uCi
(Thyroid: 9 X 101 uCi)
(Thyroid: 2 X 102 uCi)

Bioassay: (See Preceding Page)
Health Physicis DAC (µCi/ml): 2 X 10-8 (for all compounds)
Survey Technique: Beta or Gamma survey meter.
Shielding Required: 12.4 mm of lead provides 95% attenuation.
Film Badge Required: Yes -- whole body. Ring may also be required.

Special Considerations: Volatilization is a most significant problem. Simply opening a vial of sodium iodide can cause significant airborne release. Breathing zone and exhaust effluent monitoring may be required. Solutions should not be made acidic or stored frozen. Double gloving strongly recommended. Notify RSO immediately if personnel contamination is suspected. Medical consultation may be needed. Neutralize all spills with sodium thiosulfate before starting clean-up. All work is normally to be done in an approved hood. Depending on activity used, supplemental "mini hoods," glove boxes, and/or in-line exhaust filters may be required.

137Cs
(Cesium-137)

Various WSU researchers have or have on order soil density gauges used to determine soil compaction, etc., at various field sites of interest. These gauges are battery-powered and hand-portable. They contain within the gauge housing a 137Cs source in a welded steel capsule (usually of 10 mCi strength), radiation detector with its electronics, and readout information processing and display electronics. Typical use locations are highway construction sites, forest roads and research areas, etc. Use in backscatter mode involves placing the gauge on a flat surface at the spot to be measured, turning on the gauge, then turning it off after the measurements are completed. Use in transmission mode requires a hole in the ground for the detector; otherwise operation is the same.

Hazards from this radiomaterial are well known. Cesium-137 decays via beta emission with a half-life of about thirty years. Emissions include 0.662 MeV gamma (95%) from the daughter barium nucleus plus beta spectra with Emax of 0.51 MeV (about 95%) and 1.81 MeV (about 5%). Note that the beta radiation level per Radiation Health Handbook is 3.3 rem/hr per mCi at 1 cm. Per ICRP 30, the Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) is 4 X 106 Bq (about 90 µCi) and Derived Air Concentration (DAC) is about 5 X 10-8 µCi/ml. Measured radiation levels from an intact device are modest. However, should the source become broken or removed, it would constitute an appreciable safety hazard.

Also to be considered is the physical damage should a device be dropped onto a hand, foot, etc., and the emotional damage should the device be lost or stolen. No instance of the former is known; however, loss or theft occurs of the order of once per year for the nation, according to CPN personnel.

Adequate training and experience requires certification of completion of a safety and use training course presented by the manufacturer or other similar authority. Use must be by certified personnel, or under direct supervision of such personnel.

Compliance with manufacturer's instructions and standard use authorization provisions will ensure adequate procedures for use, storage, transport, dose control, contamination control, and emergency handling. Both Troxler and CPN gauges are specifically listed in WSU's License.

210Po
(Polonium-210)

Polonium-210 is used mainly in static eliminators. The radioactive material is electroplated onto a backing foil, then inserted into a brush, tube, or other holder. Alpha particles from the polonium ionize adjacent air; the air ions neutralize static electricity on paper or other surfaces in contact with the air. Unfortunately, the short radioactive half-life of 210Po results in a need to replace the device after a few months.

Physical Data (ICRP 38 and Rad Health Handbook)
Decay Mode alpha emission to stable lead-206
Physical half-life 138 days
Major Emissions 5.3 MeV alpha, 1/dis
Range about 4 cm in air, 0.05 mm in water

Biological Data (ICRP 30) Uptake per unit intake about 10%
Distribution of uptake about 10% in liver, 10% in kidney, 10% in spleen, remaining 70% uniform throughout body
Biological half-life 50 days
Dose per µCi intake Ingestion: liver - 1.6 rem, kidney - 9 rem, spleen - 16 rem; inhalation: liver - 8 rem, kidney - 45 rem, spleen - 100 rem,
lung - 50 rem.

Comments - Precautions: Dose rates to personnel from 210Po outside the body are nil except for material in contact with the lens of an eye. For other surfaces the dead layer of skin should absorb all alpha particles.

Contamination of the active surface area of a polonium static eliminator with oil, water, dirt, etc., will render the device inoperable by absorbing all the alpha radiation before it can reach and ionize adjacent air.

Cleaning a static eliminator must be done gently to prevent removing and spreading polonium contamination. Rinsing with water, alcohol or detergent and water is usually safe. Wiping with moistened tissue or cotton is acceptable if done with care; however, it may easily leave fibers on or around the source. Consult Radiation Safety personnel before attempting any more stringent cleaning techniques.

To prevent scraping, scratching, or rubbing radioactive material from the foil, the device must provide a screen or solid housing for the active area of the foil. Do not remove the foil from the housing.

241Am-9Be
(Americium-241 and Beryllium-9)

Various WSU researchers have or have on order gauges manufactured by Troxler or CPN which use 241Am-Be neutron sources in the measurement of soil moisture content. The gauges consist of compressed mixture of americium powder and beryllium powder, doubly encapsulated in welded stainless steel, with a neutron detector and associated electronics in a combination shield and housing. Data processing electronics may or may not be included. The device is hand-portable and battery-powered; thus is may be used infields, forest, and other such difficult-access locations. Customary uses include determination of moisture content in soil to determine optimum irrigation, determination of soil density and compaction occurring by various treatments, etc.

Soil moisture gauges present only a modest hazard as long as the radionuclide remains outside the body. 241Am decays via alpha particle emission with a half-life of about 432 years and average alpha energy of about 4 1/2 MeV. Also emitted are 60 keV photons (about 36% of decays) and 14 keV photons (about 42%). Half-value layer for 60 keV photons is about 1 cm of Al and Ð1 mm for Pb, Fe, Sn, etc. Theoretical dose rate is about 13 mrem/hr at a meter per curie; however, self-absorption and capsule wall absorption result in measured dose rates of about 3 mrem/hr per curie at a meter. Thus, shielding is simple for the photons. Neutron emission from 1 Ci of 241Am-Be is about 2.7 X 106 n-s-1. For this neutron energy (about 5 1/2 MeV average), the rad/n-cm-2 is about 2.8 X 10-8 and Quality Factor is 7 (measured) or 10 (arbitrary). Thus, neutron dose rate is about 800-1200 mrem/hr at 5 cm per curie.

In contrast, the internal hazard is high. Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) is 0.8 µCi (ingestion) or 6X10-3 µCi (inhalation). The DAC is 3X10-12 µCi/ml. Maximum intake for soluble Be is also very small due to its extreme chemical toxicity. Thus, should source integrity be lost, the loose americium and beryllium pose a very great contamination hazard, and must be handled very carefully if internal contamination is to be avoided.

Adequate training and experience requires certification of completion of a safety and use training course presented by the manufacturer or similar authority. Use must be by such certified personnel, or under direct supervision of such personnel.

Compliance with safety provisions and Use Authorization provisions will ensure adequate procedures for use, storage, transport, dose control, contamination control, and emergency handling. Both Troxler and CPN gauges are specifically authorized by the WSU License.

 

 

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